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# Non-Verbal Reasoning and Verbal Reasoning Course for the NEW GL 11+ 2018 Exam - Week 9

Thank you for visiting my blog. Did you notice that ‘thank you’ is not a compound word? Often, when we use words together a lot, words like homework, clockwise, and inside, we make them into a compound word, (two words with no gap in-between). Did you notice that in-between is a kind of compound word, one with a hyphen in it. Yes, this week, we are looking at compound words.

But first let’s do some non-Verbal Reasoning.

### Non-Verbal Reasoning:

° is the symbol for degrees, as in 90°

Rotation is an important part of non-Verbal Reasoning. It is difficult to ‘see’ shapes rotating in your head, just as it was difficult at first to ‘see’ what a writer was describing to you with words. (Remember when books stopped having lots of helpful pictures on every page and you struggled to ‘see’ the pictures?) But with practice, your brain will develop the ability. Just don’t expect it to happen right away. Things can rotate in a clockwise direction, or an anti-clockwise direction, or they can move up and down in a sequence.

The shape below, let’s call it the three-headed triangular thing, is rotating. Focus on one part of it, the less common part of the shape, I’d say the straight line in this one and that might make it easier to see the rotation.

Tip 1: Focus on a part of the shape to help you.

Again, a reflection would be different. The angled line would slant in the opposite direction in a reflection.

With non-VR we can be dealing with much more unusual shapes. It might help you to give them names.

When rotated 180° any shape will have whatever is on the bottom on the top, and the fat bottom will swap sides.

Example 1

Shape B rotates 180°. (We can eliminate shape A because it has changed size, and the shape in the example doesn’t change size.)

Example 2

Remember that 180° rotation looks different from reflection. (More of this later.)

Did you notice that the lines on one square went round corners?

Sometimes it is the inner lines that are dashed, or dotted, diagonal to the left, or to the right. Spot the difference:

The first set of crossed lines cross once, the second, twice, the third three times, and the fourth four times?

Basically, you look for small differences in the outer shape, and inner lines.

Sometimes the shape can change, but the lines stay the same...

In the two shapes on the left, we can see that the shape changes from a shield to a square but the size remains the same and so does the line style. So (with the shape on the right) the dashed shield keep the same dashed outline, but change shape to a square.

Example 3

For this type of question, you need to know the difference between an inner and an outer shape.

Outer shape is pentagon, inner shape is triangle. Outer and inner shapes stay same, but the shading ‘swaps,’ (black becomes white and white becomes black).

So we want the same changes to happen from the first shape to ABCDorE of the question.

So we follow the same pattern with the second shape:

Step 1: Outer shape, a hexagon, must stay the same, so eliminate E.

Step 2: Inner shape, (‘keyhole,’) must stay the same, so eliminate C and D.

We are left with A and B.

Step 3: Shading must swap, (black becomes white and white becomes black,) but that doesn’t help us narrow it down.

Step 4: The inner shape on A and B is different. In B it has flipped 180°. That is not what we want. We want it to stay the same, so that only leaves answer A.

Do you see?

The important things to look out for are:
Shape, (number of sides to outer or inner shape, or other features.)

Shading: colour, type of lines, (solid, dashed, long-dashed, dotted, wavy, jagged, or anything else you can spot).

Size shapes can get very small

Number, (of inner lines, of arrowheads on an arrow, of lines crossing a shape , of crosses, of anything countable...)

And of course, rotation, reflection, and layering.

#### I have given you lots of clues, so now let’s practice!

Remember, take it in steps.

Step 1

Work out what has happened with the first two shapes. Don’t look at the other shapes until you have worked this out, or you will get confused.

Write down what you spot, if it helps.

What has changed from the first to second shape?

The two outer shapes change. Outer shape (triangle) flips upside down 180°.

Look at shape 3, the one we need to find a pair for. We need the outer shape to flip upside down 180°.

Eliminate A.

We need to find another difference between the two in the first pair. The inner shape, (square) goes from standing on its angle to standing on its flat side.

The inner shape in shape 3 is on its flat side. We need to find a pair that swaps from standing on its flat side to standing on its angle. Eliminate A and D.

We need to take another step. We are left with A and C.

The number of lines (arrowheads) on shape 3 is 2. This didn’t change in the first pair we are copying. So we can eliminate C.

Answer: eliminate A (outer shape doesn’t do 180 turn). Eliminate B (wrong number of arrow heads on the top). Eliminate C (wrong number of arrowheads on top). Eliminate D (inner hexagon is still standing on its angle). All we have left is E.

22: Now you. Find the pattern first. Then eliminate ABCDorE as you go along.

Step 1: look at differences between first pair of shapes: Horizontal becomes vertical.

Step 2 Left inner shape (triangle) becomes bottom inner shape, and right inner shape (‘key’ or ‘pi) becomes top inner shape.

Step 3: Look at pair 3. Left shape has to go on the bottom. Look at the options ABCDE. Eliminate D because it doesn’t have an arrow the inner shape.

Step 4: Look back to first two pairs of shapes: spot another difference. The inner shape turned 180 (upside down). Look at ABCorE for shape that does the same.... Eliminate B and C, (arrow hasn’t flipped).

Step 5: Look at A and E only. One has a triangle on the bottom, one has a square on the bottom. Could this be significant? Look back at first pair of shapes – the outer shape has on the right has gone to the top, and the outer shape on the left has gone to the bottom. So, with the second pair of shapes, we need the square to go to the top, and the triangle to go to the bottom. Answer is E.

23: This first shape ‘contracts,’into the second shape.

Take it one part of the image at a time.

Look carefully at each detail in the example pair.

The following images are taken from the https://www.gl-assessment.co.uk/media/169656/nvr-1-familiarisation-test-booklet.pdf.

The tips are mine.

## Compound Words

When two words get used together often, they become one compound word.

Air + port = airport

Air + way = airway

Air+guitar does not make air guitar! Not yet.

Write out as many words – on your notepad - as you can that start with the first word: I’ve started the first ones for you

Super: superhuman, ...............................................................................................

Any: anytime,..........................................................................................................

Up: upstairs, ...........................................................................................................

Under: underfoot.....................................................................................................

In: inside.................................................................................................................

Fire: Firefly.............................................................................................................

Now as may as you can think of that end in the following suffixes:

Able: comfortable, ..................................................................................................

Less: doubtless,.......................................................................................................

Ball: netball,............................................................................................................

Ever: whoever.........................................................................................................

Now, read over the following and see how many you can remember at the end. (If there are any words you don’t know, look them up!)

Compound Words;

Sunlight, Sunday, Weekend, weekday, Cannot

Moonlight, moonbeam, moonshine, moonstruck

Anymore, anyplace, anywhere, anybody, anything, anyway

Bookcase, bookshelf, bookworm

Lifetime, lifelong, lifelike, life-affirming, lifeline, lifeblood, lifeboat, lifelong

Blackbird, blacklist, blackberries, blackout, blackboard

Whitebait, whitewash, whiteout, whiteboard

Daydream, daylight, daytime, daywear

Dishwasher, dishwater, dishcloth

Tablecloth, table knife, tablespoon

Bathroom, bathhouse, bathrobe, bathmat, bath time

Doorbell, doormat, doorstep, doorstop, doorway, dormouse (door means sleeping in French)

Firearm, firefighter, firefly, fireplace, fireproof, fireworks

waterworks, waterway, waterfall, watermelon, waterproof

sometimes, someone, somebody, somehow, someway, somewhere, (there’s a place for us....)

without, withheld, withstand, whatever

therefore, itself, thunderstorm

grandmother, grandchild, grandfather

earache, earwig, earmuffs, earphone, earrings

eyeball, eyesight, eyepatch, eyelid

footnote, footwell, footwear

handkerchief, handball, handstand, handle, handheld, handmade, handmaid

heartache, heartfelt, heartless, heartbroken, sweetheart

southwest, northeast

rainbow, raincloud, rainstorm, raincoat

afternoon, afterthought, afterwards, aftershock

keyword, keyhole

outward, outbound, outward, outgoing, outgrow, outlet, outset, outcry

Some Prefixes are words:

Forethought, forehead, foreground, forewarn, foremost, foresight, forecast, foreteel, forefather, forehand, forecourt

Backache, background, backpack, backhand, backtrack, backward

Become, beside, beholden, begrudge, bewitch, beware, because, became,

Upward, upstream, uplift, uppermost, upside-down, upend

Understand, underneath, underground, underwear, undergrowth, undercharge, undercover, undercurrent, underhand, underage, underarm

Outcry, outdoor, outfield, outfit, outgrow, outlaw, outlet, outnumber, outfit, outpatient, outcast, (find one more.....)

Nobody, Nowhere, Nothing, (No one stays two words as it looks wrong like this ‘noone.’ Words that don’t combine well, tend to be left as two separate words.)

Randoms

commonplace, also, another, passport, earthquake, forgive, elsewhere,

Also be aware of words of foreign origin which can be used as a prefix to another word to make a compound word.

super (means greater) Superman, supermassive, superwoman, superhero, supergiant, supernova, supersonic, supersenstive, supervisor, supercool, superfine, superhuman, superimpose, supernatural, superpower.

bi (means two) bicycle, biped, binoculars, binary

aqua (means water) aquarium, Aquarius, aquatic, aquaplane

aero (means air) aeroplane, aerodrome, aeronauts, aerodynamic

Phone (means sound) homophone, telephone, microphone, gramophone,

Micro (means small) microscope, microfilm, microphone, microcosm, microbe

audi (means hear) audible, audience, audition, auditorium

trans (means across) transport (carry across) transplant transfer transaction

prim (means first) prime, primary,

auto (means self) automatic, autograph, autobiography, automobile

tele (means far off) telephone, television, teleport, telecom

re (means again) replay, reply, reconsider, repeat

pre (means before) preview, prehistoric, previous, prevent

sub (means under): subway, submarine, subconcious, submerge, subordinate, substandard.

Suffixes are added to the END of a word. Some suffixes are whole words:

Like (means similar to) Lifelike, unlike

Clockwise, lengthwise, otherwise (means ways)

Less (makes it the opposite) Hopeless, friendless, homeless, worthless

Lonesome,(some makes it a describing word,) handsome, quarrelsome, cumbersome

Football, netball, baseball, fireball, rollerball, glitterball

Sunday, Monday, birthday

Forward, backward, homeword, wayward

Also be aware of words of foreign origin which can be used as a suffix with another word to make a compound word.

port (meaning carry) transport, portable, import, export

Ology (means study) archaeology, biology, geology, zoology

graph (means to write) autograph, telegraph, photograph, graphic

phobia (means fear,) claustrophobia (fear of closed spaces,) arachnophobia (understandable fear of spiders,) agoraphobia (fear of outside spaces,) xenophobia (stupid fear of foreigners).

## Now for the 11+ Practice questions.

### English

Nouns are naming words for things, whether concrete or abstract:

Common; boy, girl (applies to any boy or any girl).

Proper: Pippi Longstocking, Harry Potter, (applies to a specific boy or girl).

Group flock of sheep, flock of birds, murder of crows, (a group treated as one).

Abstract: things we can’t see, hear, smell, taste, or touch, like ideas, (including specific ideas like honesty, revolution, solution,) thoughts, dreams, beliefs, knowledge,

If you have difficulty spotting an abstract noun, watch out for these endings:
ity, (charity, hospitality, sanity, insanity, reality, affability, priority, personality)

Tion (education, superstition, revolution, deception, revelation, attraction)

Sion (permission, mission, emission, omission, depression, compression)

Ment (enjoyment, entertainment, achievement, agreement, puzzlement)

Ness (kindness, politeness, consciousness, unconsciousness, awareness)

These are ending we put on a word to change them from other kinds of words into abstract nouns:

Kind (describing word) kindness (an idea)

To Enjoy, (verb) enjoyment (an idea)

Sand (describing word) sanity (an idea.

(But be aware that a few are not: eg. Mansion is a common noun.)

### Vocabulary

Look up at least ten words from the words in this week’s blog and learn them. Look up their synonyms and antonyms, and learn them.